The European Commission states that human trafficking has a “detrimental effect on individuals, society, and the economy” and is a “gross violation of fundamental rights, and is explicitly prohibited under the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union”.[1]

This study emerged from the INTAP project, Intersectional approach to the process of integration in Europe for survivors of human trafficking, co-funded by the European Commission. It was carried out to investigate the integration process of Nigerian survivors and to answer the central question of how to strengthen opportunities and overcome hindrances to the process of integration in Europe for Nigerian survivors of human trafficking for sexual exploitation. The qualitative study was conducted on 35 Nigerian Survivors, 18 experts and 2 focus groups. The data was collected by a semi-structured qualitative interview with questions on different aspects of integration and was transcribed and analysed using the MAXQDA software.

Key findings of this study are the role of a Person of Trust as the biggest opportunity and the role of fear as biggest hindrance for survivors’ integration. Further implications are the need for more state funding for gender-specific and mother-child friendly safe housing and SoT-specialised social workers and NGOs. Asylum policies need to be adjusted in order to refrain from deporting SoTs. Along with this, the EU Member States should release more funds for anti-racism and other Social Impact Projects in order to counteract refugee hostility in society.

A brief guide to the contents of the report: Chapter 2 provides the context of the study and presents the state of research. Readers interested in the methodological approach can go to Chapter 3. Readers who are most interested in specific topics within integration (e.g. health care system, housing, etc.) can go to Chapter 4 with the specific code summaries. Practitioners (e.g. social workers, volunteers, etc.) whose focus is on practical implications can go directly to Chapter 5.2 and 5.3.

[1] European Commission. 2016. “Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council - Report on the Progress Made in the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings (2016).” COM(2016) 267 Final. Brussles.






The Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is the EU's legal framework for asylum matters. When the European Union began work on the Common European Asylum System in 1999, it aimed to establish minimum standards for asylum in all EU Member States. This working paper provides a summary of the five main Directives/Regulations in the field of asylum.

Another issue affecting survivors of trafficking (SoT) in the context of an intersectional approach to integration, which is hardly addressed, is motherhood. This working paper addresses how motherhood can hinder and promote Integration of Nigerian SoT.